Category Archives: Best essays and Research Papers

A health psychologist is interested in the effects...

A health psychologist is interested in the effects of exercise on stress in people who regularly exercise. Specifically, she is interested in the type of exercise as well as the time of day that the individual exercises. She recruits participants from a local health club who regularly participate in one of three types of exercise:  swimming, aerobics, and tennis. She further divides these participants by whether they exercise in the morning or the evening. She then administers a questionnaire to each individual assessing their self-reported stress level. (HIGHER SCORE = HIGHER STRESS). Conduct a two-way ANOVA to analyze these data. Use Fisher’s LSD as well as Tukey’s tests in order to conduct any necessary post hoc analyses if there are significant main effects. You do not have to follow up on significant interactions at this time.

 

The steps will be the same as the ones you have been practicing in Part One of the assignment—the only difference is that you are now responsible for creating the data file as well. Remember to name and define your variables under the “Variable View,” then return to the “Data View” to enter the data.

 

 

 

 

Morning

Swimming Aerobics Tennis

10

16

12

16

9

19

21

16

18

17

21

18

14

 

 

Evening

14

13

8

12

12

17

12

14

9

10

12

15

19

14

 

  1. 2.  Write an APA-style results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). For the two-way ANOVA, be sure to include statistical statements concerning the F ratios and p values for both main effects and the interaction, and interpretation statements about all 3 of these effects.

 

  1. 3.  Is there a significant interaction effect?

 

  1. 4.  Based on your results, is there one type of exercise that seems more effective in reducing stress than the others? Remember that higher scores = higher stress.

Green & Salkind: Lesson 26, Exercises 1, 4, 5...

Green & Salkind: Lesson 26, Exercises 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8

The following helpful tips are numbered to correspond with the exercise number to which they refer (a dash indicates that no tips are needed):

1. Instead of identifying these values on your output, as the text states, please write them into your Word file as written answers for #1 a, b, c, and d.
4. Remember to past graph into Word document. Follow directions in text for setting up graph.
5. ——-
6. ——-
7. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure).
8. ——-

Budgetary concerns are an issue across all industr...

Budgetary concerns are an issue across all industries, including health care. A health care organization notices increasing costs in staffing and overhead, such as capital and supplies. The health care organization must determine how to reduce costs while not compromising patient care and safety.

* Scenario 2: A group of nursing home administrators, which includes an infection control officer, has noticed increasing rates of infection at the nursing home. Infection rates must be kept as low as possible. High infection rates can result in serious complications for patients. A nursing home that continues to have high infection rates is at risk for fines. The nursing home administrators are meeting to discuss possible ways to reduce infection at their facility.

Write a 500- to 700-word paper that describes decision making in the workplace. Remember that you are not making the decision for these scenarios.

Include the following in your paper:

* Describe two decision-making approaches managers can use to make the decision for the scenario you selected.
* Explain why this decision is better made by a group rather than by an individual. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the group decision-making process for this scenario.

In 2007, Kendall Ford, an automobile dealership, s...

In 2007, Kendall Ford, an automobile dealership, spends $20,000 on a new car lift for its repair shop, $2,000 on a new copy machine for its sales division, and $500,000 on Ford Motor company stock. Unsold cars and trucks were valued at $900,000 on January 1, 2007 and unsold cars and trucks were valued at $600,000 on December 31, 2007. What is Kendall Ford’s total investment spending in 2007? 
) 
______ A) 
$22,000 
B) 
$922,000 
C) 
$322,000 
D) 
$522,000

2)
The largest income component of GDP is 
______ A) 
interest received by households. 
B) 
compensation received by employees. C) 
corporate profits. 
D) 
proprietor’s income.

3)

Suppose that nominal GDP in 2005 was less than real GDP in 2005. Given this information, we know for certain that 

______ A) 
real GDP in 2005 was greater than real GDP in the base year. B) 
the price level in 2005 was greater than the price level in the base year. C) 
the price level in 2005 was less than the price level in the base year. D) 
real GDP in 2005 was less than real GDP in the base year.

Exercise 2-1: Testing Herzberg’s Job Enrichm...

Exercise 2-1: Testing Herzberg’s Job Enrichment Theory

This exercise is a reanalysis of Exercise 1-2: A Motivated Time at Work (Workbook 1). It is designed to give you a “hands on” feel for Herzberg’s theory by having you apply it to your own work experiences.

Your objective is to determine the degree to which the reasons that contributed to your being highly motivated correspond to Herzberg’s motivator/hygiene factors. If Herzberg’s theory is correct, then as an aggregate the persons doing Exercise 1-2 should have given more weight to motivator than to hygiene factors in explaining the “motivated time at work.”

Keep in mind that your own results may not fit the theory. Social scientists almost always study aggregate data in order to smooth out the idiosyncrasies of individual responses.

 

Step 1: Match Reasons to Herzberg’s Factors

For each reason identified in Exercise 1-2, see if you can place it alongside one of Herzberg’s lists of motivator/hygiene factors. Do this on the next page. Since it is unlikely that the terms you used in doing Exercise 1-2 correspond exactly with Herzberg’s terminology, you will probably have to do some translating. If one of the reasons that you listed in Exercise 1-2 doesn’t seem to fit Herzberg’s terms, ignore it.

When you enter the reasons from Exercise 1-2 on the lists on the next page, put in the number of the reason as it was listed in 1-2 and the weight assigned to it (e.g., #3(4) represents factor #3 which was given a weight of 4). In this way, the instructor can determine if you are classifying your Exercise 1-2 reasons correctly into Herzberg’s motivator/hygiene categories.

 

Step 2: Total the Factors

Total the number of motivator and hygiene factors and enter the totals in the spaces provided.

 

Step 3: Total the Weights of the Factors

Add the weights for the motivator and hygiene factors and put the totals in the spaces provided.





Herzberg’s Motivator factors
Factor Number(S) and Weight(S) from Exercise 1-2
Achievement  
Recognition  
Interesting Work  
Responsibility  
Challenge  
Professional Growth  
Total Number of Factors = Total Number of Factors =Total of Weights =

 

Hygiene Factors Factor Number(S) and Weight(S) from Exercise 1-2
Supervision  
Working Conditions  
Interpersonal Relations  
Money, Extrinsic Rewards  
Company Policy  
Status  
Security  
Total Number of Factors = Total of Weights =

 

 


Exercise 2-2: The Job Diagnostic Survey

The following survey (modified from Hackman & Oldham, 1980)will be used in conjunction with the main ideas of this workbook. Your answers will be used to compute a score evaluating the quality of the design of the job you are presently holding. Later, you will see how your score matches a number of jobs from the private and public sectors.

As you fill out this survey, remember the primary purpose for doing so is to enhance your own learning. The more honestly you respond to the questions, the more valuable will be your learning experience.

Part 1: Characteristics of Your Job

In the spaces provided beneath each scale, check the characteristic that best fits your present or most recent job.

1.1.      How much autonomy is there in your job? That is, to what extent does your job permit you to decide on your own how to go about doing your work?

Very Little

Moderate

Very much

My job gives me almost no personal say about how and when the work is done. Many things are standardized and not under my control, but I can make some decisions about the work. My job gives me almost complete responsibility for deciding how and when the work is done.
                           

1

 

2

3

4

5

6

7

 
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 


1.2.      To what extent does your job involve a “whole” and identifiable piece of work? That is, is your job a complete piece of work that has an obvious beginning and end? Or is it only a small part of the overall piece of work, which is finished by other people or by automatic machines?

Very Little

Moderate

Very Much

 
My job is only a tiny part of the overall piece of work; the results of my activities cannot be seen in the final product or service. My job is a moderate-sized “chunk” of the overall piece of work; my contribution can be seen in the final outcome. My job involves doing the whole piece of work, from start to finish; the result of my work is easily seen in the final product.  
                         

1

 

2

3

4

5

6

7

Minimum              

Maximum

 

1.3.      How much variety is there in your job? That is, to what extent does your job require you to do many different things in your work, using a variety of skills and talents?

Very Little

Moderate

Very Much

My job requires me to do the same routine things over and over and over again.   My job requires me to do many different things, using a number of different skills and talents.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 


1.4.      In general, how significant or important is your job? That is, are the results of your work likely to affect significantly the lives or well-being of other people?

Very Little

Moderate

Very Much

The outcomes of my work are not likely to have important effects on other people.   The outcomes of my work can affect other people in very important ways.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 

1.5.      To what extent does doing your job itself provide you with information about your work performance? That is, does the actual work itself provide clues about how well you are doing, aside from any “feedback” co-workers or supervisors may provide?

Very little

Moderate

Very much

My job is set up so that I could work forever without finding out  how well I am doing. Sometimes doing my job provides me with feedback; sometimes it does not. My job is set up so that I get almost constant feedback about how well I am doing.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 


Part 2: Further Analysis

How accurate is each of the following statements in describing your job? In the space provided, write a number from 1 to 7 to indicate the degree of accuracy of each statement.

1          =       Very Inaccurate                                   5       =       Somewhat Accurate

2          =       Mostly Inaccurate                               6       =       Mostly Accurate

3          =       Somewhat Inaccurate                         7       =       Very Accurate

4          =       Uncertain

 

               2.1.   My job requires me to use a number of complex or high-level skills.

               2.2.   My job is arranged so that I do not have the chance to do an entire piece of work from beginning to end.

               2.3.   Just doing the work required by my job provides many chances for me to figure out how well I am doing.

               2.4.   My job is quite simple and repetitive.

               2.5.   My job is one where many other people can be affected by how well my work gets done.

               2.6.   My job denies me any chance to use personal  initiative or judgement in carrying out my work.

               2.7.   My job provides me the chance to completely finish the pieces of work I begin.

               2.8.   My job provides very few clues about whether or not I am

performing well.

               2.9.   My job gives me considerable opportunity for independence and freedom in deciding how to do my work.

               2.10. My job is not very significant or important in the broader scheme of things.


Exercise 2-3: Job Interests Survey

On the following pages, you will find a survey called the “Job Interests Survey” (modified from Hackman & Oldham, 1980).After filling it out, you will learn how it relates to job design theory and you will be shown the results from other students.

The questions in the Job Interests Survey ask you to make difficult judgments about work situations you would prefer over other situations. While it is admittedly not easy to make such judgments, you should try your best to do so, keeping in mind that your answers will be part of your learning experience about job design theory.

People differ in the kinds of jobs they would most like to hold. The questions in this section give you a chance to say just what it is about a job that is most important to you.

For each question, two kinds of jobs are briefly described. You are to indicate which of the jobs you would prefer if you had to make a choice between them.

In answering each question, assume that everything else about the job is the same. Pay attention only to the characteristics actually listed. Then circle the statement below that bests fits your preferences as an individual.

 

JOB A

JOB B

1. A job where the pay is very good. A job where there is considerable opportunity to be creative.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

2.

 

A job where you are often required to make important decisions. A job with many pleasant people to work with.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

3.

 

A job in which greater responsibility is given to those who do the best work. A job in which greater responsibility is given to loyal employees who have the most seniority.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

4.

 

A job in an organization which is in financial trouble–and might have to close down within the year. A job in which you are not allowed to have any say whatever in how your work is scheduled, or in the procedures to be used in carrying out your work.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

5.

 

A very routine job. A job where your co-workers are not very friendly.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

6.

 

A job with a supervisor who is often very critical of you and your work in front of other people. A job which prevents you from using a number of skills that you worked hard to develop.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

7.

 

A job with a supervisor who respects you and treats you fairly. A job which provides constant opportunities for you to learn new and interesting things.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

8.

 

A job where there is a real chance you could be laid off. A job with very little chance to do challenging work.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

9.

 

A job in which there is a real chance for you to develop new skills and advance in the organization. A job which provides lots of vacation time and an excellent fringe-benefit package.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

10.

 

A job with little freedom and independence to do your work in the way you think best. A job where the working conditions are poor.

 

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 


                JOB A

JOB B

11. A job with very satisfying teamwork. A job which allows you to use your skills and abilities to the fullest extent.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

JOB A

JOB B

12.

 

A job which offers little or no challenge. A job which requires you to be completely isolated from co-workers.

I strongly

prefer A

I slightly

prefer A

I’m

neutral

I slightly

prefer B

I strongly

prefer B

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

Exercise 2-4: Calculating the MPS of Your Job

The worksheet on this page is designed to help you to calculate the MPS of your own job. In Exercise 2-2, you filled out the Job Diagnostic Survey. Use this now to calculate your MPS.

On the Job Diagnostic Survey, you indicated answers for Parts 1 and 2 of the survey. Each term below corresponds to your own answers. For example, the term “1.3” in the equation below represents the number you checked for item 3 in Part 1 of the Job Diagnostic Survey. “8 – 2.4” means that you should subtract the number you indicated for item 4 in Part 2 of the Job Diagnostic Survey from 8. You are doing this because item 2.4 is reversed to the other items on the survey.

 

SKILLVARIETY       =                    =                     

TASKIDENTITY       =                    =                     

 

 

TASKSIGNIF.            =                  =                     

 

AUTONOMY           =                    =                     

 

FEEDBACK               =                    =                     

 

Motivating Potential Score (MPS) =  =             _______

 

Your calculations can also be used to plot a “job diagnostic profile” for your job. For each of the five factors, put a “ * ” above the factor at the level (1 through 7) corresponding to your calculations for that factor.


Job Diagnostic Profile

                  7

 

6

 

5

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

                                                                                                                 

SV                 TI                   TS                  A                 F

 


Exercise 2-5: Motivated and Unmotivated Times

This exercise will enable you to determine whether the Job Diagnostic Survey discriminates between well and poorly designed jobs.

In doing this exercise, you can either select the jobs you originally described in Exercises 1-2 (A Motivated Time at Work) and 1-3 (An Unmotivated Time at Work), or you can select different jobs/times that conform to the conditions set out in 1-2 and 1-3.

Call the motivated time job “Job M” and the unmotivated time job “Job U” (for convenience).

Step 1:            Fill out Parts 1 and 2 of the Job Diagnostic Survey for both jobs (in Part 2, use the M column for Job M and the U column for Job U). A blank copy of the Job Diagnostic Survey can be found at the end of these instructions.

 

Step 2:            Complete the job diagnostic profile and compute the MPS for both jobs.

 

Step 3:            Determine whether the Job Diagnostic Survey has done an effective job of differentiating between the two jobs.

If the Job Diagnostic Survey is useful, it should discriminate between M- and U-type jobs. M-type jobs should range between 5 and 7, whereas U-type jobs should range from 1 to 5.

 

Step 4:            The Job Diagnostic Survey should also pinpoint specific problem areas in terms of the job characteristics (i.e., some might be very low while others are high). In looking at the results, did it pinpoint weak job characteristics? This could occur for either M- or U-type jobs.

 

Step 5:            Finally, and more difficult to assess, the Job Diagnostic Survey should cover all important characteristics of a job designed for intrinsic motivation. Do you sense that it does so, or are there some key aspects of work that seem to you to have been neglected in the survey?

 

Job Diagnostic Survey: Part 1

In the spaces provided below, write an “M” for the characteristic that best fits Job M (from Exercise 1-2) and a “U” for the characteristic that best fits Job U (Exercise 1-3).

1.1       How much autonomy is there in your job? That is, to what extent does your job permit you to decide on your own how to go about doing your work?

Very Little

Moderate

Very much

My job gives me almost no personal say about how and when the work is done. Many things are standardized and not under my control, but I can make some decisions about the work. My job gives me almost complete responsibility for deciding how and when the work is done.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 

1.2       To what extent does your job involve a “whole” and identifiable piece of work? That is, is your job a complete piece of work that has an obvious beginning and end? Or is it only a small part of the overall piece of work, which is finished by other people or by automatic machines?

Very Little Moderate Very Much  
My job is only a tiny part of the overall piece of work; the results of my activities cannot be seen in the final product or service. My job is a moderate-sized “chunk” of the overall piece of work; my contribution can be seen in the final outcome. My job involves doing the whole piece of work, from start to finish; the result of my work is easily seen in the final product.  
                         

1

 

2

3

4

5

6

7

Minimum              

Maximum

 

 

 

1.3       How much variety is there in your job? That is, to what extent does your job require you to do many different things in your work, using a variety of skills and talents?

Very Little

Moderate

Very Much

My job requires me to do the same routine things over and over and over again.   My job requires me to do many different things, using a number of different skills and talents.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 

1.4       In general, how significant or important is your job? That is, are the results of your work likely to significantly affect the lives or well-being of other people?

Very Little

Moderate

Very Much

The outcomes of my work are not likely to have important effects on other people.   The outcomes of my work can affect other people in very important ways.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 


1.5       To what extent does doing your job itself provide you with information about your work performance? That is, does the actual work itself provide clues about how well you are doing–aside from any “feedback” co-workers or supervisors may provide?

 

Very little

Moderate

Very much

My job is set up so that I could work forever without finding out  how well I am doing. Sometimes doing my job provides “feedback”; sometimes it does not. My job is set up so that I get almost constant feedback about how well I am doing.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 


Job Diagnostic Survey: Part 2

How accurate is each of the following statements in describing the job? In the space provided, write a number 1 to 7 to indicate the degree of accuracy of each statement.

1          =       Very Inaccurate                                   5       =       Somewhat Accurate

2          =       Mostly Inaccurate                               6       =       Mostly Accurate

3          =       Somewhat Inaccurate                         7       =       Very Accurate

4          =       Uncertain

 

Job M             Job U

                                       2.1    The job requires the worker to use a number of
complex or high-level skills.

                                       2.2    The job is arranged so that the worker does not have
the chance to do an entire piece of work from
beginning to end.

                                       2.3    Just doing the work required by the job provides
many chances for the worker to figure out how well
he or she is doing.

                                       2.4    The job is quite simple and repetitive.

                                       2.5    This job is one where many other people can be
affected by how well the work gets done.

                                       2.6    The job denies the worker any chance to use personal                            initiative or judgement in carrying out the work.

                                       2.7    The job provides the worker the chance to completely
finish the pieces of work he or she begins.

                                       2.8    The job itself provides very few clues about whether
or not the worker is performing well.

                                       2.9    The job gives worker considerable opportunity for                     independence and freedom in deciding how to do the
work.

                                       2.10  The job itself is not very significant or important in
the broader scheme of things.


Calculations

The term “1.3” in the equation below represents the number you circled for item 3 in Part I of the Job Diagnostic Survey. “8 – 2.4” means that you should subtract the number you wrote in for item 4 in Part 2 of the Job Diagnostic Survey from 8. Thus, if you wrote in a “3” for item 4, Part 2, then 8 – 3 = 5. You are doing this because item 2.4 is reversed to the other items on the survey.

 

JOB M

 

SKILL VARIETY      =                   =                     

 

TASK IDENTITY      =                    =                     

 

TASK SIGNIF.           =                 =                     

AUTONOMY           =                    =                     

FEEDBACK               =                    =                     

 

Motivating Potential Score (MPS)    =              =                     


JOB U

SKILL VARIETY      =                    =                     

 

TASK IDENTITY      =                    =                     

 

TASK SIGNIF.           =                  =                     

 

AUTONOMY           =                    =                     

 

FEEDBACK               =                    =                     

 

Motivating Potential Score (MPS) =                 =                     

 

For each of the five factors, put an “M” or a “U” above the factor at the level (1 through 7) corresponding to your calculations for that factor for the M- and U-type jobs.

 

 

Job Diagnostic Profile

                  7

 

6

 

5

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

                                                                                                                 

SV                 TI                   TS                  A                 F

 


Exercise 2-6: Assessing the Need to Redesign a Job

A major point of interest is to what degree Job Design Theory sheds light on the causes of the sub-standard performance of the person you identified in Exercise 1-1, (Workbook 1, Attribution Theory). In this exercise, you will examine the person’s job in Exercise 1-1 to determine whether poor job design might be one source (there could be others) of that person’s lack of full effort on the job. You will also complete a Job Diagnostic Survey, decide whether the job should be redesigned, and, if so, how.

According to Hackman and Oldham, jobs should not be redesigned unless four minimal conditions hold true:

1.   There must be a productivity problem that is motivational in nature.

2.   The problem must be intrinsic (job quality) in part, and not just due toa     poorly designed reward system.

3.   The jobholders have high growth needs, and, thus, would be receptive to enriched work.

4.   The benefits must outweigh the costs. Determining whether to redesign    jobs must be based on a strategic decision-making process, just as making investments or other decisional activities in your organization would be handled.

You will now use these considerations to decide whether the person’s job from Exercise 1-1 should be redesigned. This will give you a feel for the importance of the considerations that Hackman and Oldham would make before undertaking a job redesign project.

 


Part A: Job Design Assessment

Step 1: Is there a motivation problem?

State whether you feel that there is a motivational problem among all persons holding that job. List specific, observable examples demonstrating why you think there is or is not a problem. Don’t expect the situation to be black and white. You will probably be able to come up with examples supporting both positions. You should think of workers other than the person on whom you originally focused.

A.  Behaviours indicating low motivation:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

 

B.  Behaviours indicating high motivation:

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Step 2: What is the cause of the problem?

Assuming that there is a problem, is it because of poor intrinsic job design, poor extrinsic rewards, or both? Start by completing a Job Diagnostic Survey of the person’s job in Exercise 1-1, and prepare a job diagnostic profile. You will find a blank copy of the Job Diagnostic Survey at the end of this exercise. Post the results below:

SKILL VARIETY      =                     

TASK IDENTITY      =                     

TASK SIGNIF            =                     

AUTONOMY           =                     

FEEDBACK               =                     

MPS SCORE              =                     


Job Diagnostic Profile

 

7

 

6

 

5

 

4

 

3

 

2

 

1

                                                                                                                 

SV                 TI                   TS                  A                 F

 

Step 3: Is the job is poorly designed?

Comment on whether the job is poorly designed and which factors, if any, rate lowest. Do these results make sense from your perspective of the job? While the Job Diagnostic Survey should provide food for thought, you should not say “yes” or “no” to whether the job is well designed based solely on the Job Diagnostic Survey. After all, you are not the jobholder, and persons at that level may see things differently than you. Obviously you will have your own opinions about the job regardless of what the profile looks like. You should use your own insights as well as the Job Diagnostic Survey in arriving at a decision.

 


Step 4: Will there be acceptance of or resistance to change?

If intrinsic motivation is a problem, determine whether the jobholders (including yourself) are likely to accept or resist change. You have already taken the portion of the Job Diagnostic Survey that relates to assessing a person’s growth needs (Exercise 2-3) and, thus, have a feel for the concept of growth needs. Now you have to make an educated guess about the growth needs of the person in Exercise 1-A1 person and of others holding the same job. However, keep in mind that as  a supervisor you may not be able to accurately guess whether your subordinates have high growth needs, because much of their work attitudes and behaviour may be hidden from your direct observation, and because a poorly designed job may make people behave as if they have low growth needs. With these difficulties in mind, make your best guess as to whether growth needs are high and explain your reasoning.

Step 5: What costs and benefits will relate to redesigning the job?

Assuming that there is a motivational problem, that the problem is in part intrinsic in nature, and that jobholders have high growth needs and would not resist change, assess the costs and benefits that would be involved if the job was to be redesigned. List the costs and benefits that you think would be involved in such a decision.

Possible Costs:

A.______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

B.______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

C.______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________


D._____________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

 

Possible Benefits:

A.______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

B.______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

C.______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

D._____________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 


Step 6: What are the roadblocks and opportunities?

Look for roadblocks and opportunities. Are there any special situations that would either block or facilitate a job redesign project in your organization?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

 

Step 7: What recommendations can you make for improvement?

Whether you’ve decided that job redesign would be beneficial or not, make at least three specific recommendations for improving the person’s job described in Exercise 1‑1.

A.______________________________________________________________________            

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

B.______________________________________________________________________            

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

C.______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 


Part B: Job Diagnostic Survey

PART 1

In the spaces provided beneath each scale, check the characteristic that best fits the job of the person with sub-standard performance.

1.1       How much autonomy is there in the job? That is, to what extent does the job permit the jobholder to decide on his or her own how to go about doing the work?

Very Little

Moderate

Very much

The job gives the worker almost no personal say about how and when the work is done. Many things are standardized and not under the worker’s control, but he or she can make some decisions about the work. The job gives me almost complete responsibility for deciding how and when the work is done.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 

1.2       To what extent does the job involve a “whole” and identifiable piece of work? That is, is the job a complete piece of work that has an obvious beginning and end? Or is it only a small part of the overall piece of work, which is finished by other people or by automatic machines?

Very Little Moderate Very Much  
The job is only a tiny part of the overall piece of work; the results of the worker’s activities cannot be seen in the final product or service. The job is a moderate-sized “chunk” of the overall piece of work; the worker’s contribution can be seen in the final outcome. The job involves doing the whole piece of work, from start to finish; the result of the worker’s work is easily seen in the final product.  
                         
1   2   3   4   5   6   7
Minimum              

Maximum


1.3       How much variety is there in the job? That is, to what extent does the job require the worker to do many different things in the work, using a variety of skills and talents?

Very Little

Moderate

Very Much

The job requires the worker to do the same routine things over and over and over again.   The job requires the worker to do many different things, using a number of different skills and talents.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 

1.4       In general, how significant or important is the job? That is, are the results of the work likely to significantly affect the lives or well-being of other people?

Very Little

Moderate

Very Much

The outcomes of the work are not likely to have important effects on other people.   The outcomes of the work can affect other people in very important ways.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 


1.5       To what extent does doing the job itself provide the worker with information about the work performance? That is, does the actual work itself provide clues about how well the worker is doing, aside from any “feedback” co-workers or supervisors may provide?

Very little

Moderate

Very much

The job is set up so that the worker could work forever without finding out  how well he or she is doing. Sometimes doing the job provides  the worker with feedback; sometimes it does not. The job is set up so that the worker gets almost constant feedback about how well he or she is doing.
                           
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Minimum              

Maximum

 

 

PART 2: Further Analysis

How accurate is each of the following statements in describing the job? In the space provided, write a number from 1 to 7 to indicate the degree of accuracy of each statement.

1          =       Very Inaccurate                                   5       =       Somewhat Accurate

2          =       Mostly Inaccurate                               6       =       Mostly Accurate

3          =       Somewhat Inaccurate                         7       =       Very Accurate

4          =       Uncertain

 

               2.1       The job requires use of a number of complex or high-level skills.

               2.2       The job is arranged so that the jobholder does not have the chance to do an entire piece of work from beginning to end.

               2.3       Just doing the work required by the job provides many chances for the jobholder to figure out how well he or she is doing.

               2.4       The job is quite simple and repetitive.

               2.5       The job is one where many other people can be affected by how well the work gets done.

               2.6       The job denies the jobholder any chance to use personal initiative or judgement in carrying out the work.

               2.7       The job provides the jobholder the chance to completely finish the pieces of work he or she begins.

               2.8       The job provides very few clues about whether or not the jobholder is performing well.

               2.9       The job gives the jobholder considerable opportunity for independence and freedom in deciding how to do the work.

               2.10     The job is not very significant or important in the broader scheme of things.

 


Calculations

 

SKILL VARIETY      =                   =                     

 

TASK IDENTITY      =                    =                     

 

TASK SIGNIF.           =                  =                     

 

AUTONOMY           =                    =                     

 

FEEDBACK               =                    =                     

 

Motivating Potential Score (MPS) =    =                     


Exercise 2-7: Redesigning a Cafeteria Cashier’s Job

At this point, we would like you to practice making job redesign suggestions. We have selected the job of being a cashier in a cafeteria because it is one that occurs in both public and private sectors and that all persons taking this course have observed at one time or another.

Assume that motivation is a problem, that the job is poorly designed, that the employees have high growth needs (you may disagree with this, but make the assumption for the purpose of the exercise), and that the benefits of redesigning the job will outweigh the costs. Also assume that there are no problems restricting the redesign of the job (e.g., union contracts, job descriptions).

In the space below, make four specific recommendations as to how such a job could be redesigned.

1. ______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Research a real product, and explain how it is a p...

Research a real product, and explain how it is a product of denationalization including the following:
How marketing costs are lower and show new market opportunities were created
How it helped income all year round, benefited the local market, and reduced expenses
How it used local technology and the effect it had on other production inputs
Be sure to also include a response to the following questions:
Did the product change jobs and wages domestically or internationally?
Did it affect the environment domestically or internationally?
Is denationalization of the supply chain better or worse for the global economy?

Research a specific company of your choice and ide...

Research a specific company of your choice and identify some of the managerial decisions that were made over time and in response to changes in its market or competitive environment. Use Ashford University Online library and web-based resources for your research. At least 3 external resources must be used. Address all of the following areas:
Focus of the Final Paper
Describe the company and provide a brief history of its operations. Find or use graphs to illustrate its financial performance over the years.
Identify any sources of risk or uncertainty in its operations. Do the financial reports indicate risky or uncertain activities or changes to the economic environment that ultimately appear to have affected the company’s financial outcomes? Be specific.
Are there any government regulations that have affected this company’s operations domestically or abroad? Explain.
Describe the inputs that are used in this company’s production function and identify any challenges to securing these inputs.
Determine if the company has introduced new products in existing markets or created new markets over time. What is the impact on its finances?
Determine if the price of its products increased or declined over time and analyze the reasons for price fluctuations. Study the demand elasticity for its products and discuss the availability of close substitutes for its products. How does that affect pricing decisions?
Analyze the company’s profitability. Identify the economy or industry influences on its costs, operations, and profitability.
Describe the competitive environment in which the firm operates, the distribution of market power, and the strategic behavior of the firm and its competitors. Apply your knowledge of the theory of this company’s market structure. How does the company make pricing and production decisions? Is your observation supported by the theoretical models? Refer to the financial reports for illustration.
Identify any non-price competitive strategies that the company might be engaging in? Provide specific examples.
Evaluate if the company made any mistakes in its decisions over time, and recommend any changes or improvements for the future operations. Refer to the financial reports when making specific observations or recommendations.
Use economic language and demonstrate your understanding of the concepts and theories of this course.

Visit two or more of the following websites that a...

Visit two or more of the following websites that are appropriate for your selected health issue:

* Center for Disease Control: http://www.cdc.gov

* Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com

* American Heart Association: http://www.americanheart.org
* American Lung Association: http://www.lungusa.org

* American Diabetes Association: http://www.diabetes.org

* American Cancer Society: http://www.cancer.org

Provide an overview of the selected health issue and of psychology’s role in health.

Review at least one current psychology education program within your employer or your community that educates people about that disease or condition. If you are not sure where to find information, check your employer’s website or human resources department, your city’s website, the local community hospital’s website, or the county health department website. The University of Phoenix also offers Rev Wellness (http://www.revwellness.com).

Propose improvements to the selected psychology education or awareness program targeted at the population most affected by the health issue. Build on the existing program you are researching.

Create a Power Point presentation of 15- 20 slides (Includes Title Page & Reference Page) in which you combine your health issue overview, your review of the education program, and your proposal to improve the program. The presentation must include detailed speaker’s notes to further elaborate the bullet points listed on the slides.
Include 2-3 slides for each of the following. Outline each item using bullet points. Use 2-3 slides for each of the 6 topics listed below.
* Identify the psychology health issue and describe characteristics of the individuals or group most affected by the disease.

* Discuss risk factors that can be controlled, how to control them, and risk factors that cannot be controlled.

* Discuss developmental, gender, and socio-cultural factors that impact the health issue.

* Discuss the treatment options available to individuals and groups.

* Describe health-related behavior and health promotion strategies to address this health issue

* Discuss lifestyles changes that are needed to enhance health and to prevent illness.

Use a minimum of 3 references & 3 citations within body of presentation (citations on slide or in speaker’s notes). You should include 2-3 images (either clip art or from website, such as bing.com or other image sites).

**Choose resources from list of Acceptable Academic Resources posted in Course Materials or suggested websites listed above.
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

This paper is a review of the professional literat...

This paper is a review of the professional literature on your topic. As such, most of the paper will be
information you have researched, and this information should be properly cited.
The paper and project must be your own work. Plagiarism will not be tolerated in any format. This paper
should not contain any personal opinion or any personal forms such as “I” or “you” or “we” other than in the Conclusion. There should be no personal experiences or those of friends or co-workers. The only personal communication allowed is from experts, which must be cited properly (see APA Manual). Keep in mind your assignment is to research the topic you have chosen from the approved list and address that topic specifically. You should write about the specific topic, not a portion of the topic or a wider general history. For example, if you write about any of the Katrina topics, you do not need to present pages of information about the storm itself; rather, your goal is to address the topic as it relates to Katrina. Your paper must have a minimum of five outside scholarly and/or professional sources other than your textbook. Scholarly sources are journal articles from actual journals, not journal-looking articles from websites. Scholarly sources are also professional textbooks or scholarly books, not popular books. Professional sources are local, state, and federal government sites. You may use other sources as additional sources. If you use websites, be sure they are professional and credible. Do not use websites that are advocacy groups, businesses, or forums. Newspapers, magazines, and news media are popular sources and do not count towards your outside source requirement; however, they can be used as additional sources. If a site has information that is useful but is not as solid as required, see if you can find the information at a more reputable site. If not, then the information may be questionable. Quoted material should not exceed 25% of your paper. Most of your paper should be cited information. Quotes are direct verbatim and must be cited immediately . All factual statements and others’ work must be cited. That should be most of the paper as you are not using your own opinion.

Research Topics:

1. The History of Psychological Trauma

2. Disconnection and Trauma

3. The Impact of Trauma to 9/11 Emergency Personnel

4. PTSD

5. The Stigma of Mental Health Services and Emergency Personnel

6. Police Suicide

7. Police Psychology

8. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing

9. The Psychology of Terrorism

10. The Aftermath of Columbine

11. The Cause of the Oklahoma City Bombing

12. Domestic Terrorism

13. The Causes of Columbine

14. Peer Support Groups

15. Treatment Modalities for Emergency Services Personnel

16. The Physiology of Trauma

17. Psychological Trauma and the Holocaust

18. Survivor Guilt

19. Trauma and Hurricane Katrina

20. The Impact of Katrina on Emergency Services Personnel

Why should Caledonia focus on project free cash fl...

Why should Caledonia focus on project free cash flows as opposed to the accounting profits earned by the project when analyzing whether to undertake the project?
2.
What are the incremental cash flows for the project in years 1 through 5 and how do these cash flows differ from accounting profits or earnings?
3.
What is the project’s initial outlay?
4.
Sketch out a cash flow diagram for this project.
5.
What is the project’s net present value?
6.
What is its internal rate of return?
7.
Should the project be accepted? Why or why not?-