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Comm 300: Communication Theory Directions: Belo...

Comm 300: Communication Theory



Directions:  Below are 30 multiple choice questions.  Please indicate the best answer from the selections given.


Symbolic Interaction Theory


  1. Symbolic interaction theory argues that meaning


  1. can only exist when people share common interpretations of the symbols they exchange in an interaction
  2. occurs between people
  3. is affected by society
  4. all of the above
  5. none of the above


  1. According to Mead, one of the most critical activities people accomplish through thought is


  1. projection
  2. role taking
  3. the Pygmalion effect
  4. the concept of mind


  1. The looking-glass self is best defined as


  1. the mental image others have of us
  2. the mental image we have of ourselves
  3. the mental image we have of how others see us
  4. the mental image of the physical attributes we observe


  1. True or False?  One of Mead’s ontological assumptions is that human communication is social.


  1. true
  2. false


Coordinated Management of Meaning


  1. Coordinated management of meaning


  1. refers to how individuals establish rules for creating and interpreting meaning
  2. refers to how rules are used in a conversation
  3. assumes that humans co‑create reality
  4. all of the above


  1. Which of the following is a speech act?


  1. a compliment
  2. an insult
  3. a sarcastic remark
  4. all of the above



  1. Deanna and her son Aidan are talking about manners.  Deanna tells Aidan, “Cover your mouth when you sneeze.”  This is an example of which type of rule?


  1. constitutive
  2. unwarranted
  3. regulative
  4. patterned



  1. True or False?  CMM is an example of a Laws Approach to theory building.


  1. true
  2. false



Cognitive Dissonance Theory


  1. Cognitive dissonance can be defined as


  1. the feeling people have when they do things that don’t fit with what they believe
  2. the feeling people have when some of their opinions do not fit with other opinions they hold
  3. the feeling people have when their actions are congruent with what they know
  4. both a and b
  5. none of the above



  1. You believe that smoking is dangerous to your health; and yet, you smoke a pack of cigarettes a day.  When this inconsistency is pointed out to you, you are likely to experience


  1. dissonance
  2. consonance
  3. irrelevance
  4. none of the above



  1. When confronted with the fact that you smoke even though you think it is bad for you, you rationalize that it’s okay for you to smoke because you are under a tremendous amount of stress in college and smoking helps to calm your nerves.  This rationalization process is likely to


  1. increase your dissonance
  2. anger your Comm 300 professor
  3. restore consonance
  4. all of the above
  5. none of the above


  1. According to class lecture, the three factors that influence the magnitude of dissonance a person will feel are


  1. the amount of inconsistency, the number of dissonant cognitions, and the number of consonant cognitions
  2. the amount of inconsistency, the dissonance ratio, and the dissonance propensity
  3. the relative importance of your cognitions, the number of dissonant cognitions, and the number of consonant cognitions
  4. none of the above





Uncertainty Reduction Theory


  1. According to URT, the two primary goals of individuals engaged in an initial interaction are _________________ and __________________.


  1. understanding, disclosure
  2. prediction, explanation
  3. disclosure, explanation
  4. prediction, control


  1. In the ____________ phase of interpersonal communication, self‑disclosure increases as parties begin to reduce their uncertainty about one another.


  1. entry
  2. primary
  3. personal
  4. exit


  1. Jake is attracted to Felicia, but he’s not sure about her current relationship status. He decides to ask one of her friends if Felicia is currently seeing anyone. Which type of tactic has Jake employed to reduce his uncertainty about Felicia?


  1. passive
  2. active
  3. interactive
  4. co‑active


  1. Below are two of the seven original Axioms of URT.


Axiom 1:  There is a negative relationship between Uncertainty and Verbal Communication

Axiom 5:  There is a positive relationship between Uncertainty and Reciprocity

What is the resulting Theorem by combining these two Axioms?


  1. there is a positive relationship between verbal communication and reciprocity
  2. there is a negative relationship between verbal communication and reciprocity
  3. there is no relationship between verbal communication and reciprocity
  4. there is a curvi-linear relationship between verbal communication and reciprocity



Social Exchange Theory


  1. Relationships in which costs exceed rewards are perceived as being


  1. interdependent
  2. negative
  3. supportive
  4. positive


  1. We are likely to stay in relationships when our satisfaction is __________ and our comparison level for alternatives is __________.


  1. low, high
  2. low, low
  3. all of the above
  4. none of the above


  1. We are likely to leave a relationship when our satisfaction is __________ and our comparison level for alternatives is __________.


  1. low, high
  2. low, low
  3. all of the above
  4. none of the above



  1. True or False? One of Thibaut and Kelley’s epistemological assumptions is that knowledge is certain.


  1. true
  2. false


Social Penetration Theory


  1. All of the following statements about self‑disclosure are true EXCEPT


  1. nonintimate relationships typically progress to an intimate level without engaging in self‑disclosure
  2. self‑disclosure can be strategic, which means that disclosures are planned
  3. self‑disclosure can be nonstrategic, which means that disclosures are spontaneous
  4. stranger‑on‑the‑train refers to instances in which people reveal information in public places to complete strangers


  1. When we meet someone for the first time (i.e., our initial encounter), the breadth of our self disclosure is ___________ and the depth of our self disclosure is __________.


  1. high, low
  2. high, high
  3. low, high
  4. low, low


  1. Julianne and Ricardo have reached the point in their relationship at which they openly express their thoughts and feelings with one another. Their communication is viewed as being efficient. Which stage of social penetration describes the current state of their relationship?


  1. orientation
  2. exploratory affective
  3. affective exchange
  4. stable exchange



Relational Dialectics Theory


  1. All of the following statements are true about dialectical tensions EXCEPT


  1. people are not always able to resolve the contradictions they experience and may become comfortable believing inconsistent things about relationships
  2. partners in a relationship experience ongoing tensions between contradictory impulses
  3. dialectical theorists support the idea that there is typically one point of view that should dominate a relationship
  4. Baxter and Montgomery are the researchers associated with Relational Dialectics Theory





  1. Kip has been dating Theresa for less than a month.  During a recent date, he discovered that he was uncomfortable because he had revealed a lot of information about his dysfunctional childhood to Theresa but had not told her about the time he was arrested for driving under the influence.  Which dialectical tension is Kip experiencing?


  1. autonomy and connection
  2. openness and protection
  3. novelty and predictability
  4. real and ideal


  1. Praxis is the dialectic element which lets us know which of Baxter and Montgomery’s ontological assumptions?


  1. knowledge is certain
  2. communication is an individual endeavor
  3. communication is a matter of choice
  4. knowledge is uncertain


Aristotle’s Rhetoric


  1. One of the assumptions of Aristotle’s Rhetoric is that effective speakers must consider their audiences when constructing a speech.  This assumption underscores the notion of communication as


  1. symbolic meaning making
  2. linear
  3. confusing
  4. transactional


  1. An argument consists of a claim that garners support from _________________ and is explained with the use of __________________.


  1. reasoning, evidence
  2. reasoning, rhetoric
  3. rhetoric, evidence
  4. evidence, reasoning


  1. While running for president of the United States, Barack Obama gave many speeches advocating health care reform in the United States. These speeches were a form of _________ oratory.



  1. epideictic
  2. forensic
  3. ceremonial
  4. deliberative


  1. Drunk driving can kill people. College students can kill others if they drink and drive.” is an example of a syllogism.


  1. true
  2. false


Organizational Information Theory A big part of g...

Organizational Information Theory
A big part of going to college is learning how to manage all the different “texts.” I don’t mean only textbooks, but also all the different kinds of information we receive each day in our work worlds, our educational endeavors, and at home. Some texts we all deal with include:
Tax documents
Information from UMUC and our children’s schools
Work memos and reports
Electronic texts and e-mails
Phone calls from our parents
Good communication is not “equivocal,” or “ambiguous,” meaning that the message cannot be taken two ways. Here’s a good link to the dictionary definitions of equivocal that may help you with understanding the shades of meaning of the term:
Trust me, as someone who has to communicate complex theories to students, I try NOT to be ambiguous in the conferences or the tests, but complete clarity is a challenge!
As a teacher, I am trying to help you manage new kinds of texts and to write your own texts using new ideas. In college, professors try to teach new ways of handling and analyzing texts for research or analysis. The different citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago) are all designed to help with the management of texts so that ideas from texts can be clearly traced and credited.
The work environment does not, alas, have a citation style to help manage texts and ideas! Therefore, organizations often have to find creative ways to present information, much of which is given as equivocal or ambiguous texts. Indeed, as your textbook states, “The main activity of organizations is the process of making sense of equivocal and ambiguous information” (p. 293). According to theorist Karl Weick, making sense of equivocal messages requires “enactment, selection, and retention of information” (p. 293). His fundamental idea is that “the only constant is change in organizations.”
So, what exactly is Weick talking about?
Your book gives you the general theoretical constructs for Organizational Information Theory (OIT) on pp. 294-296. Skim those constructs to give you a grounding for what Weick was talking about. The real heart of the discussion on OIT begins on the bottom of p. 297. You will want to know what Weick means by “Information Environment,” “Rules,” and “Cycles.”
Questions for you:
1) Can you give an example where there was an ambiguous message at your organization? How did people resolve the communication challenge? How many “cycles” were used?
2) Why might a professor deliberately give ambiguous instructions for an assignment in a communication class?
3) Have you ever used equivocal messages to resolve a dispute? Why did you make that choice and was it effective?

2) Uses and Gratification Theory_Media Consumption Diary
For the next three days, I’d like you to keep a “Media Use” diary. In your diary, please identify all the media you used, the length of time you used it, and the reasons for your use.
After three days, please answer the following questions:
1. Which medium did you use the most? For how many hours?
2. Were you cognizant of your needs before using a medium or after?
3. Can you identify your needs according to the needs gratification table presented in the text?
4. Do you consider yourself an active consumer of media? Why? Why not?
Spiral of Silence Theory_The Silent Minority
According to Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann’s (N-N’s) Spiral of Silence Theory, the media (including the internet) acts to increase our fear of social isolation. This in turn, results in our lack of willingness to offer dissenting opinions.
Keeping the assumptions of the Spiral of Silence Theory in mind, please answer the following questions:
NOTE: Answer Question 1 ONLY if you feel comfortable doing so. Everyone can answer Question 2.
1. Identify an issue on which you perceive yourself to be part of the silent minority.
• What is the majority opinion?
• How do the media report the majority opinion and/or the minority opinion?
• Do you fear isolation as part of the silent minority? Why? Why not?
2. Based on your experience as part of a silent minority, do you agree with N-N that people are afraid to speak up in our mass mediated time period? Why? Why not?

1- Researchers at the University of Toledo indicat...

1- Researchers at the University of Toledo indicate that 50 percent of the students change their major area of study after their first year in a program. A random sample of 100 students in the College of Business revealed that 51 had changed their major area of study after their first year of the program. Has there been a significant increase in the proportion of students who change their major after the first year in this program? Test at the 0.05 level of significance.

2 The management of ABC Industries is considering a new method of assembling its golf cart. The present method requires 42.3 minutes, on the average, to assemble a cart. The mean assembly time for a random sample of 24 carts, using the new method, was 40.6 minutes, and the standard deviation of the sample was 2.7 minutes. Using a 0.05 level of significance, can we conclude that the assembly time using the new method is faster?

3 Last year the records of Dairy Land Inc., a convenience store chain, showed the mean amount spend by a customer was $30. A sample of 40 transactions this month revealed the mean amount spend was $33 with a standard deviation of $12. At the 0.1 level of significance, can we conclude that the mean amount spend has increased?

4 State DMV records indicate that of all vehicles undergoing emissions testing during the previous year, 70% passed on the first try. A random sample of 200 cars tested in a particular county during the current year yields 160 that passed on the initial test. Does this suggest that the true proportion for this county during the current year differs from the previous statewide proportion? Test the relevant hypotheses using

5 According to a recent survey, Americans get a mean of 7 hours of sleep per night. A random sample of 50 students at Sacramento State University (Sac State) revealed the mean number of hours slept last night was 6.8 hours. The standard deviation of the sample was 0.9 hours. At 10% level of significance, is it reasonable to conclude that students at Sac State sleep less than the typical American?

HRM593 assignment After viewing the tutorial loca...

HRM593 assignment

After viewing the tutorial located in this week’s Lecture tab, complete the reading and review the Lecture notes. Answer the following questions relating to ADA expanded by the ADAAA.
If such a situation occurred in your workplace and you were the Director of Human Resources:
Would you deem Karina disabled under the ADAAA? If so, what reasonable accommodations would you offer to her?
From an ADA policy standpoint, what would your ideal be in terms of an employer ADAAA policy? What would your ideal be as to what the employee (Karina) should be told by the HR Department in regards to her rights and obligations pursuant to the ADAAA? From the employer policy perspective, focus on identification of reasonable accommodation requirements under applicable law, application of the legal requirements for this scenario, determinations as to whether reasonable accommodations can be made, and steps that can be taken to make specific accommodations if requested.
Your assignment should be between 500-750 words. Properly cite your sources using APA format.

Contemporary Issues in Eastern Religions Facilitat...

Contemporary Issues in Eastern Religions Facilitation in Shinto

· A specific Indigenous Tradition Shinto

Prepare an interactive facilitation about the contemporary issues facing the assigned Eastern religious tradition in which you:

· Discuss the common characteristics the assigned religion
shares with the others.

· Analyze the interactions between the modern world and the
assigned religion.

· Provide examples of how these interactions influence both the
assigned religion and the modern world.

Cite at least five references in addition to the readings for this

Format citations and references in accordance with APA guidelines.

Buddhism Worksheet : Theravada Buddhism Write a ...

Buddhism Worksheet : Theravada Buddhism

Write a 1,500 to 2,100-word paper that does the following:

· Describes the significant moments in the Buddha’s life as related
by the assigned tradition.

· Discusses the historical origins of the tradition.

· Includes unique practices and teachings of the tradition

California recently enacted legislation to curb th...

California recently enacted legislation to curb the high number of car accidents caused by teenagers. The new laws increased the number of training hours and restricted teens from driving with people in their car under the age of 25. So far, the laws have proven effective in reducing the number of teen-driving accidents.

Like teenagers, the elderly also have a poor record for driving. Many experience lapses in coordination or judgement that can make them dangerous behind the wheel. With accidents among the elderly gaining more national attention, California is proposing enacting special laws that will restrict elderly drivers , as well.

1. How might senior citizens’ driving problems be similar to teenagers’ problems? How might they be different?

2. Should new driving laws placing additional restrictions on the elderly be enacted? If so, what laws do you think should be created?

Support your response with examples from your experience, observation, or research.

Search the electronic media (television shows, mov...

Search the electronic media (television shows, movies, documentaries) for one contemporary story/situation that illustrates any aspect of globalization we have covered in class. In an essay of 1-2 pages (typewritten, double-spaced, 12-inch font) describe the story/situation. Identify and explain the aspect of globalization to which it is related.

Thomas Arcaro’s definition of “global citizens...

Thomas Arcaro’s definition of “global citizens” 2) indicates and explains the actors he believes prevents us from acting like good global citizens 3) summarizes his model for proceeding as a global citizen.

Assignment 1: Financial Statement Analysis Select...

Assignment 1: Financial Statement Analysis

Select one (1) of the following publically traded health care organizations: Universal Health Services (NYSE: UHS) or Health Management Associates (NYSE: HMA).

Suppose you are a newly appointed CFO of your chosen health care organization. One of your first tasks is to conduct an internal financial analysis of the organization. Conduct a brief financial analysis and review of the chosen company’s financial statements for at least three (3) consecutive years. After conducting the analysis, interpret the data contained within the statements.

Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:

1.Based on your review of the financial statements, suggest a key insight about the financial health of the company. Speculate on the likely reaction to the financial statements from various stakeholder groups (employee, investors, shareholders). Provide support for your rationale.
2.Identify the current industry trend that has the most significant impact on your chosen organization’s financial performance. Indicate the trend’s impact on the financial performance of the organization. As the CFO, suggest at least one (1) way that you might minimize the impact of the trend on the organization.
3.As the CFO, suggest one (1) key strategy that you might use in order to improve the financial performance of the organization. Recommend an approach to implement the suggested strategy. Provide support for your recommendation.
4.Use at least four (4) quality academic resources. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

•Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
•Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

•Evaluate the financial statements and the financial position of health care institutions.
•Analyze the role of important financial reporting statements – income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows – and explain how they relate to one another and to the underlying sources of data.
•Use technology and information resources to research issues in health financial management.
•Write clearly and concisely about health financial management using proper writing mechanics.
Click here to view the grading rubric for this assignment.