Organizational Information Theory
A big part of going to college is learning how to manage all the different “texts.” I don’t mean only textbooks, but also all the different kinds of information we receive each day in our work worlds, our educational endeavors, and at home. Some texts we all deal with include:
Information from UMUC and our children’s schools
Work memos and reports
Electronic texts and e-mails
Phone calls from our parents
Good communication is not “equivocal,” or “ambiguous,” meaning that the message cannot be taken two ways. Here’s a good link to the dictionary definitions of equivocal that may help you with understanding the shades of meaning of the term: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/equivocal
Trust me, as someone who has to communicate complex theories to students, I try NOT to be ambiguous in the conferences or the tests, but complete clarity is a challenge!
As a teacher, I am trying to help you manage new kinds of texts and to write your own texts using new ideas. In college, professors try to teach new ways of handling and analyzing texts for research or analysis. The different citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago) are all designed to help with the management of texts so that ideas from texts can be clearly traced and credited.
The work environment does not, alas, have a citation style to help manage texts and ideas! Therefore, organizations often have to find creative ways to present information, much of which is given as equivocal or ambiguous texts. Indeed, as your textbook states, “The main activity of organizations is the process of making sense of equivocal and ambiguous information” (p. 293). According to theorist Karl Weick, making sense of equivocal messages requires “enactment, selection, and retention of information” (p. 293). His fundamental idea is that “the only constant is change in organizations.”
So, what exactly is Weick talking about?
Your book gives you the general theoretical constructs for Organizational Information Theory (OIT) on pp. 294-296. Skim those constructs to give you a grounding for what Weick was talking about. The real heart of the discussion on OIT begins on the bottom of p. 297. You will want to know what Weick means by “Information Environment,” “Rules,” and “Cycles.”
Questions for you:
1) Can you give an example where there was an ambiguous message at your organization? How did people resolve the communication challenge? How many “cycles” were used?
2) Why might a professor deliberately give ambiguous instructions for an assignment in a communication class?
3) Have you ever used equivocal messages to resolve a dispute? Why did you make that choice and was it effective?
2) Uses and Gratification Theory_Media Consumption Diary
For the next three days, I’d like you to keep a “Media Use” diary. In your diary, please identify all the media you used, the length of time you used it, and the reasons for your use.
After three days, please answer the following questions:
1. Which medium did you use the most? For how many hours?
2. Were you cognizant of your needs before using a medium or after?
3. Can you identify your needs according to the needs gratification table presented in the text?
4. Do you consider yourself an active consumer of media? Why? Why not?
Spiral of Silence Theory_The Silent Minority
According to Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann’s (N-N’s) Spiral of Silence Theory, the media (including the internet) acts to increase our fear of social isolation. This in turn, results in our lack of willingness to offer dissenting opinions.
Keeping the assumptions of the Spiral of Silence Theory in mind, please answer the following questions:
NOTE: Answer Question 1 ONLY if you feel comfortable doing so. Everyone can answer Question 2.
1. Identify an issue on which you perceive yourself to be part of the silent minority.
• What is the majority opinion?
• How do the media report the majority opinion and/or the minority opinion?
• Do you fear isolation as part of the silent minority? Why? Why not?
2. Based on your experience as part of a silent minority, do you agree with N-N that people are afraid to speak up in our mass mediated time period? Why? Why not?
1- Researchers at the University of Toledo indicate that 50 percent of the students change their major area of study after their first year in a program. A random sample of 100 students in the College of Business revealed that 51 had changed their major area of study after their first year of the program. Has there been a significant increase in the proportion of students who change their major after the first year in this program? Test at the 0.05 level of significance.
2 The management of ABC Industries is considering a new method of assembling its golf cart. The present method requires 42.3 minutes, on the average, to assemble a cart. The mean assembly time for a random sample of 24 carts, using the new method, was 40.6 minutes, and the standard deviation of the sample was 2.7 minutes. Using a 0.05 level of significance, can we conclude that the assembly time using the new method is faster?
3 Last year the records of Dairy Land Inc., a convenience store chain, showed the mean amount spend by a customer was $30. A sample of 40 transactions this month revealed the mean amount spend was $33 with a standard deviation of $12. At the 0.1 level of significance, can we conclude that the mean amount spend has increased?
4 State DMV records indicate that of all vehicles undergoing emissions testing during the previous year, 70% passed on the first try. A random sample of 200 cars tested in a particular county during the current year yields 160 that passed on the initial test. Does this suggest that the true proportion for this county during the current year differs from the previous statewide proportion? Test the relevant hypotheses using
5 According to a recent survey, Americans get a mean of 7 hours of sleep per night. A random sample of 50 students at Sacramento State University (Sac State) revealed the mean number of hours slept last night was 6.8 hours. The standard deviation of the sample was 0.9 hours. At 10% level of significance, is it reasonable to conclude that students at Sac State sleep less than the typical American?
After viewing the tutorial located in this week’s Lecture tab, complete the reading and review the Lecture notes. Answer the following questions relating to ADA expanded by the ADAAA.
If such a situation occurred in your workplace and you were the Director of Human Resources:
Would you deem Karina disabled under the ADAAA? If so, what reasonable accommodations would you offer to her?
From an ADA policy standpoint, what would your ideal be in terms of an employer ADAAA policy? What would your ideal be as to what the employee (Karina) should be told by the HR Department in regards to her rights and obligations pursuant to the ADAAA? From the employer policy perspective, focus on identification of reasonable accommodation requirements under applicable law, application of the legal requirements for this scenario, determinations as to whether reasonable accommodations can be made, and steps that can be taken to make specific accommodations if requested.
Your assignment should be between 500-750 words. Properly cite your sources using APA format.
California recently enacted legislation to curb the high number of car accidents caused by teenagers. The new laws increased the number of training hours and restricted teens from driving with people in their car under the age of 25. So far, the laws have proven effective in reducing the number of teen-driving accidents.
Like teenagers, the elderly also have a poor record for driving. Many experience lapses in coordination or judgement that can make them dangerous behind the wheel. With accidents among the elderly gaining more national attention, California is proposing enacting special laws that will restrict elderly drivers , as well.
1. How might senior citizens’ driving problems be similar to teenagers’ problems? How might they be different?
2. Should new driving laws placing additional restrictions on the elderly be enacted? If so, what laws do you think should be created?
Support your response with examples from your experience, observation, or research.
Search the electronic media (television shows, movies, documentaries) for one contemporary story/situation that illustrates any aspect of globalization we have covered in class. In an essay of 1-2 pages (typewritten, double-spaced, 12-inch font) describe the story/situation. Identify and explain the aspect of globalization to which it is related.
Thomas Arcaro’s definition of “global citizens” 2) indicates and explains the actors he believes prevents us from acting like good global citizens 3) summarizes his model for proceeding as a global citizen.
Select one (1) of the following publically traded health care organizations: Universal Health Services (NYSE: UHS) or Health Management Associates (NYSE: HMA).
Suppose you are a newly appointed CFO of your chosen health care organization. One of your first tasks is to conduct an internal financial analysis of the organization. Conduct a brief financial analysis and review of the chosen company’s financial statements for at least three (3) consecutive years. After conducting the analysis, interpret the data contained within the statements.
Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:
1.Based on your review of the financial statements, suggest a key insight about the financial health of the company. Speculate on the likely reaction to the financial statements from various stakeholder groups (employee, investors, shareholders). Provide support for your rationale.
2.Identify the current industry trend that has the most significant impact on your chosen organization’s financial performance. Indicate the trend’s impact on the financial performance of the organization. As the CFO, suggest at least one (1) way that you might minimize the impact of the trend on the organization.
3.As the CFO, suggest one (1) key strategy that you might use in order to improve the financial performance of the organization. Recommend an approach to implement the suggested strategy. Provide support for your recommendation.
4.Use at least four (4) quality academic resources. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
•Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
•Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
•Evaluate the financial statements and the financial position of health care institutions.
•Analyze the role of important financial reporting statements – income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows – and explain how they relate to one another and to the underlying sources of data.
•Use technology and information resources to research issues in health financial management.
•Write clearly and concisely about health financial management using proper writing mechanics.
Click here to view the grading rubric for this assignment.
Go to the United States Department of Labor Website to read “ Health Plans and Benefits” at http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/health-plans/cobra.htm. This Website communicates the current regulations and federal involvement in employee benefits. Navigate the Website to become familiar with its contents.
Write a five to seven (7-10) page paper in which you:
1)Describe the major features of this Website and how each feature can be used to monitor employee benefits.
Thoroughly described the major features of this Website and how each feature can be used to monitor employee benefits.
2)Explain how employers could verify that their employee benefits comply with all federal laws by using this resource.
Thoroughly explained how employers could verify that their employee benefits comply with all federal laws by using this resource.
3)Explain how employees would use this information to ensure their benefits rights are protected.
Thoroughly explained how employees would use this information to ensure their benefits rights are protected.
4)Create an outline of the Website so that you could orient others to its usefulness for regulatory compliance.
Thoroughly created an outline of the Website so that you could orient others to its usefulness for regulatory compliance